Open Access Journal of Agricultural Research (OAJAR)

ISSN: 2474-8846


Current and Future of Plant Breeding Strategies to Cope with Climate Change: A Review

Authors: El Hajj AK*

DOI: 10.23880/oajar-16000338


Climate change poses significant challenges to global food security and agricultural productivity, necessitating the development of climate-resilient crop varieties. This review explores current and future plant breeding strategies aimed at coping with climate change. Various approaches, including traditional and cutting-edge techniques, wild relatives, and climate-informed strategies, have been employed to develop climate-resilient crop varieties. Traits such as heat and drought tolerance, early flowering, and maturation have been bred into varieties to mitigate the impact of changing climate conditions. Genetic mapping has identified genomic regions and candidate genes associated with stress tolerance, enabling the incorporation of stress tolerance alleles into high-yielding genetic backgrounds. Furthermore, advanced techniques such as gene editing, genomic selection, high-throughput phenotyping, and omics technologies have revolutionized plant breeding for climate adaptation, offering precise and efficient means of introducing desired traits. The integration of these cutting-edge techniques holds immense potential for developing climate-resilient crop varieties. However, challenges related to regulatory frameworks, intellectual property rights, and public acceptance must be addressed for responsible and sustainable adoption. A holistic, multidisciplinary approach that links breeding and climate science is crucial to strengthen adaptation and ensure food security in the face of accelerated climate change. Continued advancements in gene editing, genomic selection, high-throughput phenotyping, and omics technologies will further enhance breeding efficiency and precision. The future of plant breeding lies in the development of "climate-smart" varieties and cultivation systems resilient to future conditions with a focus on addressing farmer needs and global food security.

Keywords: Crop; Climate Change; Plant Breeding; Agriculture

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