International Journal of Biochemistry & Physiology (IJBP)

ISSN: 2577-4360

Review Article

Citric Acid Production by Aspergillus Niger through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation: An Overview

Authors: Ryan AS*, Abudukadeer K, Hasan AT and Yasser QA

DOI: 10.23880/ijbp-16000242


Currently, citric acid is produce through microbial fermentation using various microorganisms in three different techniques, viz. submerged culture fermentation (SmF), solid-state fermentation (SSF) and liquid surface fermentation (LSF). Majority of the present commercial production of citric acid is through submerged culture fermentation by using A. niger on by-product of sugar industry as substrate. However, lately, exploitation of solid state fermentation has demonstrated some prospective in becoming a substitute to submerged fermentation for the commercial production of citric acid. In view of finding an alternative fermentation technique for citric acid production which is more effective, fuel-efficient, labour-saving and economical than the existing ones, this review discusses a comparative account of solid-state fermentation and submerged fermentation.

Keywords: Aspergillus Niger, Citric Acid, Submerged Fermentation (Smf), Solid-State Fermentation (SSF)

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