Diabetes & Obesity International Journal (DOIJ)

ISSN: 2574-7770

Review Article

Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome: A Review of the Double Impact on Cardiovascular Disease Risk

Authors: Elounais R, Mpanga J, Flanagan C, Nguyen B* and Drees B

DOI: 10.23880/doij-16000290


Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation metabolic changes that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Smoking associated with higher TG and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, low HDL, and increased risk of developing insulin resistance, which may increase the risk of developing MetS. Smoking and MetS occurring together may further increase CVD risk. This paper reviewed the association between smoking and its exposure on development of MetS, as well as the combined effect of smoking and MetS on cardiovascular health. Current and former smoking increases the risk of MetS and its components, especially elevated TGs, lower HDL levels, and insulin resistance, and the risk increases with higher smoking exposure and persists over time in former smokers. The exposure of children and adolescents to secondhand smoke, especially among overweight children, is of concern as passive smoking causes metabolic derangements (weight gain and lipid abnormalities) that may lead to development of MetS and increased risk for CVD. Smokers with MetS had nearly twice the risk of cardiovascular events compared to those who did not smoke nor have MetS. Tobacco and the metabolic consequences of obesity are the two leading causes of preventable death; thus, it is crucial to recognize and address the adverse health effects of MetS, and include tobacco cessation in the lifestyle interventions for MetS, in addition to weight management and physical activity.

Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome; Smoking; Cardiovascular Risk; Smoking Exposure

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